Effects of mortar compressive strength on out of plane response of unreinforced masonry walls
Keywords:lateral hollow clay bricks, infill walls, out-of-plane loadings, mortar compressive strength, experimental OOP test
In this study, the out-of-plane response of infill walls that are widely used in Turkey and the surrounding regions were experimentally investigated. Several out-of-plane wall tests were performed in the laboratory, with the walls specimens produced with lateral hollow clay bricks (LHCB) and different mortar qualities. The walls were tested in their out-of-plane (OOP) direction under static load conditions and evaluated based on the load-bearing and energy dissipation capacities, crack propagations, mortar strengths, and initial stiffnesses. These walls are experimentally investigated to understand the effects of the mortar strength on the infill wall structural behaviors and to assess the effectiveness of the out-of-plane strength formulations. It was found that when the mortar strength is low, the first major crack occurs at the mortar, however, because of the arch mechanism efficiency in this situation the OOP load-carrying and energy dissipation capacities of unreinforced walls can be significantly increased. When the first major crack in the wall occurs in the brick itself, the arc mechanism is provided with delicate sections in the brick, which leads to strength decreasing in the walls. In this case, excessive deviations occur in the out-of-plane strength formulations estimates. This study shows that the arc mechanism, the damage start region and progress can change significantly unreinforced masonry (URM) infill walls behaviors.
Angel R, A. D., Shapiro D, Uzarski J, Webster M. (1994). Behaviour of reinforced concrete frames with masonry infills.
Arslan, M. E., Durmuş, A., & Hüsem, M. (2019). Cyclic behavior of GFRP strengthened infilled RC frames with low and normal strength concrete. Science & Engineering of Composite Materials, 26(1), 30. doi:https://doi.org/10.1515/secm-2017-0060
Binici, B., Canbay, E., Aldemir, A., Demirel, I. O., Uzgan, U., Eryurtlu, Z., . . . Yakut, A. (2019). Seismic behavior and improvement of autoclaved aerated concrete infill walls. Engineering Structures, 193, 68-81. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2019.05.032
Bombing news in Turkey. (2016). Yenisafak, pp. https://www.yenisafak.com/gundem/midyatta-emniyet-mudurlugune-bombali-aracla-saldiri-2477659.
Da Porto, F., Guidi, G., Verlato, N., & Modena, C. (2015). Effectiveness of plasters and textile reinforced mortars for strengthening clay masonry infill walls subjected to combined in-plane/out-of-plane actions/Wirksamkeit von Putz und textilbewehrtem Mörtel bei der Verstärkung von Ausfachungswänden aus Ziegelmauerwerk, die kombinierter Scheiben- und Plattenbeanspruchung ausgesetzt sind. Mauerwerk, 19(5), 334-354. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/dama.201500673
Demirel, i. o., yakut, a., & binici, b. (2018). Dolgu Duvarların Düzlem Dışı Yönde Hava Yastığı İle Deneyi. Anadolu Üniversitesi Bilim Ve Teknoloji Dergisi - B Teorik Bilimler, 6(2), 133-140. doi:https://doi.org/10.20290/aubtdb.489940
Di Domenico, M., Ricci, P., & Verderame, G. M. (2019). Experimental assessment of the out-of-plane strength of URM infill walls with different slenderness and boundary conditions. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 17(7), 3959-3993. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-019-00604-5
Di Domenico, M., Ricci, P., & Verderame, G. M. (2020). Experimental Assessment of the Influence of Boundary Conditions on the Out-of-Plane Response of Unreinforced Masonry Infill Walls. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 24(6), 881-919. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2018.1453411
Dizhur, D., Ingham, J., Walsh, K., Giongo, I., & Derakhshan, H. (2018). Out-of-plane Proof Testing of Masonry Infill Walls. Structures, 15, 244-258. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.istruc.2018.07.003
Eurocode. (2004). Design of masonry structures. Part 1-1: General Rules for Reinforced and Unreinforced Masonry Structures. In.
Flanagan, R. D., & Bennett, R. M. (1999). Arching of Masonry Infilled Frames: Comparison of Analytical Methods. Practice Periodical on Structural Design & Construction, 4(3), 105. doi:https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)1084-0680(1999)4:3(105)
Furtado, A., Arêde, A., Varum, H., & Rodrigues, H. (2020). Effect of the Panel Width Support and Columns Axial Load on the Infill Masonry Walls Out-Of-Plane Behavior. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 24(4), 653-681. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2018.1453400
Furtado, A., Rodrigues, H., Arêde, A., & Varum, H. (2018). Out-of-plane behavior of masonry infilled RC frames based on the experimental tests available: A systematic review. Construction and Building Materials, 168, 831-848. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.02.129
Onat, O., Correia, A. A., Lourenço, P. B., & Koçak, A. (2018). Assessment of the combined in-plane and out-of-plane behavior of brick infill walls within reinforced concrete frames under seismic loading. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 47(14), 2821-2839. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.3111
Ricci, P., Di Domenico, M., & Verderame, G. M. (2018). Experimental assessment of the in-plane/out-of-plane interaction in unreinforced masonry infill walls. Engineering Structures, 173, 960-978. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.07.033
Sayın B., K. S. A. (2005). Deprem etkisi altındaki betonarme yapılarda dolgu duvarların modellenme teknikleri Paper presented at the Deprem Sempozyumu, Kocaeli.
Silva, Y. F., Lange, D. A., & Delvasto, S. (2020). Effects of the incorporation of residue of masonry on the properties of cementitious mortars. Revista de la Construcción. Journal of Construction, 19(3), 407-421. doi:https://doi.org/10.7764/rdlc.19.3.407-421
Standard Test Method for Static Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson’s Ratio of Concrete in Compression. (2014). In ASTM C469 / C469M-14. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.
Valluzzi, M. R., da Porto, F., Garbin, E., & Panizza, M. (2014). Out-of-plane behaviour of infill masonry panels strengthened with composite materials. Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions, 47(12), 2131-2145. doi:https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-014-0384-6