Navigating Dimensions across Materials and History: Scale as a Lens to Understand Dynamic and Cumulative Sociotechnical Relationships

Main Article Content

Ellan F. Spero
Christine Ortiz

Abstract


Through the lens of scale, this paper combines knowledge and perspectives from the history of technology and materials science and engineering to examine the materiality of the ubiquitous technological systems that are so often hidden in the everyday. The simultaneously exceptional and prosaic case of materials underpinning water filtration is examined in a 19th century manufacturing city in the United States. An analysis related to materials structure-property-processing-performance correlations is integrated with historical approaches to technological landscapes, the co-construction of use and value, and narratives of progress. This study provides insights into the dynamic social and material relationships that change across scales, as well as into mechanisms and cumulative influences of material constituents in larger sociotechnical systems. This contribution is incorporated within a framework for socially-directed science and technology, and its implementation in new and existing higher education institutions is discussed.


Article Details

How to Cite
Spero, E. F., & Ortiz, C. (2021). Navigating Dimensions across Materials and History: Scale as a Lens to Understand Dynamic and Cumulative Sociotechnical Relationships. Diseña, (18), Article.1. https://doi.org/10.7764/disena.18.Article.1
Section
Original articles
Author Biographies

Ellan F. Spero, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Station1

Bachelor of Science and Master of Science in Fiber Science and Apparel Design, Cornell University. Master of Arts in Museum Studies and Textile Conservation, Fashion Institute of Technology. Doctor of Philosophy in History, Anthropology, Science, Technology and Society, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Spero is an Ins­tructor at MIT in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Co-Founder and Professor of the Practice at Station1, a nonprofit higher educational institution focused on socially-directed science and technology. Research areas of focus include narratives of progress, systems of production, academic-industrial ecosystems, and so­cio-material infrastructures. Spero is the author of ‘The Tua Valley in Transition, Symbol and Technological Landscapeʼ (with H. S. Pereira; CEM Cultura, Espaço e Memória / Culture, Space & Memory, N° 7), ‘A Garden City for Pro­gress and Harmony: Singapore at the Osaka 1970 Expoʼ (in S.G. Knowles and A. Molella eds.; World’s Fairs in the Era of the Cold War; University of Pittsburgh Press, 2019), and ‘An Entrepreneurial Opportunity in Process: Creating an Industrial Fellowship in Early Twentieth Century Americaʼ (Management and Organizational History, Vol. 12, N° 3).


Christine Ortiz, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Station1

Bachelor of Science in Mate­rials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Masters of Science and Doctor of Philosophy in Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University. Ortiz is the Morris Cohen Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at the MIT Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and foun­der of Station1, a nonprofit higher education institution focused on socially-directed scien­ce and technology. Research areas of focus in­clude multiscale materials design and mecha­nics, socio-resilient approaches to materials development, biological materials, materials and nanotechnologies, materials modeling and simulation, high-resolution microscopy of materials, biological and bio-inspired ma­terials. Ortiz is author of over 195 scholarly publications including, ‘Bioinspired Structural Materialsʼ (with M. C. Boyce, Science, Vol. 319, N° 5866), ‘Multifunctionality of Chiton Biomineralized Armor with an Integrated Visual Systemʼ (with L. Li, et al., Science, Vol. 350, N° 6263), and ‘Hierarchical Structural Design for Fracture Resistance in the Shell of the Pteropod Clio pyramidataʼ (with L. Li, and J. C. Weaver, Nature Communications, 6, 6216).

References

Aerial and Panoramic Photographs. (Ca. 1850-1920). Glass Plate Negative and Photographs. Lawrence History Center – Immigrant City Archives and Museum, Lawrence, MA, United States.

ALLEN, D. S., & REICH, R. (Eds.). (2013). Education, Justice, and Democracy. The University of Chicago Press.

Allen Hazen Papers, 1883-1974 (MC 430). Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Distinctive Collections.

BAILEY, H. H., & HAZEN, J. C. (1876). Lawrence Massachusetts, 1876 [Map].

BARKER, M. (1989, May 15). Marion Barker Oral History, The Strike of 1912 (Y. Erdener, Interviewer) [Interview]. Immigrant City Archives Oral History Collection.

BENSAUDE-VINCENT, B. (2016). Building Multidisciplinary Research Fields: The Cases of Materials Science, Nanotechnology and Synthetic Biology. In M. Merz & P. Sormani (Eds.), The Local Configuration of New Research Fields: On Regional and National Diversity (Vol. 29, pp. 45–60). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-22683-5_3

BIAGIOLI, M. (Ed.). (1999). The Science Studies Reader. Routledge.

BIJKER, W. E., HUGHES, T. P., & PINCH, T. (Eds.). (2012). The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology (Anniversary ed.). MIT Press.

BINNIG, G., QUATE, C. F., & GERBER, CH. (1986). Atomic Force Microscope. Physical Review Letters, 56(9), 930–933. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.56.930

BRAY, F. (1997). Technology and Gender: Fabrics of Power in Late Imperial China. University of California Press.

BRAY, F. (2016). Flows and Matrices, Landscapes and Cultures. Icon, 22, 8–19.

BROWNING, A., ORTIZ, C., & BOYCE, M. C. (2013). Mechanics of Composite Elasmoid Fish Scale Assemblies and their Bioinspired Analogues. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 19, 75–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2012.11.003

BULLARD, R. D. (Ed.). (1996). Unequal Protection: Environmental Justice and Communities of Color. Sierra Club Books.

BURGESS, P. (1915). Mechanical Analyses of Sands. Journal AWWA, 2(3), 493–500. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1551-8833.1915.tb14136.x

CAHN, M. (2005). Opera Omnia: The Production of Cultural Authority. In K. Chemla (Ed.), History of Science, History of Text (pp. 81–94). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-2321-9_3

CLARK, H. W. (1907). Eight Years’ Work with Trickling Sewage Filters at the Lawrence Experiment Station. Engineering News Publishing Company.

CLARK, H. W. (1909). A Review of Twenty-one Years’ Experiments upon the Purification of Sewage at the Lawrence Experiment Station. Wright and Potter [Reprint from Massachusetts Board of Health].

CLARK, H. W. (1927). An Outline of Sewage Purification Studies at the Lawrence Experiment Station. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, 19(4), 448–452. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50208a010

COEN, D. R. (2016). Big is a Thing of the Past: Climate Change and Methodology in the History of Ideas. Journal of the History of Ideas, 77(2), 305–321. https://doi.org/10.1353/jhi.2016.0019

COWAN, R. S. (1983). More Work for Mother: The Ironies of Household Technology from the Open Hearth to the Microwave. Basic Books.

CRENSHAW, K. (2017). On Intersectionality: Essential Writings. The New Press.

DASTON, L. (Ed.). (2004). Things that Talk: Object Lessons from Art and Science. Zone Books.

DE GENNES, P.-G. (1979). Scaling Concepts in Polymer Physics. Cornell University Press.

DE WOLF, C., HOXHA, E., HOLLBERG, A., FIVET, C., & OCHSENDORF, J. (2020). Database of Embodied Quantity Outputs: Lowering Material Impacts Through Engineering. Journal of Architectural Engineering, 26(3), 04020016. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)AE.1943-5568.0000408

DORGAN, M. B. (1918). Lawrence Yesterday and Today (1845-1918). http://magenweb.org/Essex/Lawrence/lawrenceindianhistory.html

DREICER, G. K. (2000). Building Myths: The “Evolution” from Wood to Iron in the Construction of Bridges and Nations. Perspecta, 31, 130–140. https://doi.org/10.2307/1567265

DREICER, G. K. (2010). Building Bridges and Boundaries: The Lattice and the Tube, 1820–1860. Technology and Culture, 51(1), 126–163. https://doi.org/10.1353/tech.0.0406

DREXLER, E. (1986). Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology. Anchor.

EDDY, H. P. (1930). Massachusetts: The Cradle of Public-Health Engineering. Sewage Works Journal, 2(3), 394–403.

EDGERTON, D. (2007). The Shock of the Old: Technology and Global History since 1900. Oxford University Press.

Engineering Records, Records of the Essex Company of Lawrence, Massachusetts, 1845-1987. Lawrence History Center – Immigrant City Archives and Museum, Lawrence, MA, United States.

ESTRIN, Y., BEYGELZIMER, Y., & KULAGIN, R. (2019). Design of Architectured Materials Based on Mechanically Driven Structural and Compositional Patterning. Advanced Engineering Materials, 21(9), 1900487. https://doi.org/10.1002/adem.201900487

FELT, U., FOUCHE, R., MILLER, C. A., & SMITH-DOERR, L. (Eds.). (2017). The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies. MIT Press.

FEYNMAN, R. P. (1960). There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom. Engineering and Science, 23(5), 22–36.

FINLAY, M. R. (2003). Old Efforts at New Uses: A Brief History of Chemurgy and the American Search for Biobased Materials. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 7(3–4), 33–46. https://doi.org/10.1162/108819803323059389

FIVET, C., & BRÜTTING, J. (2020). Nothing is Lost, Nothing is Created, Everything is Reused: Structural Design for a Circular Economy. The Structural Engineer, 98(1), 74–81.

FLEMINGS, M. C. (1986). Materials Science and Engineering. Transactions of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, 26(2), 93–100. https://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational1966.26.93

FLEMINGS, M. C. (1999). What Next for Departments of Materials Science and Engineering? Annual Review of Materials Science, 29(1), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.matsci.29.1.1

FORRANT, D. R., & GRABSKI, S. (2013). Lawrence and the 1912 Bread and Roses Strike. Arcadia.

FREIRE, P. (2014). Pedagogy of the Oppressed (30th Anniversary Edition). Bloomsbury.

FULLER, G. W. (1894, October 6). Sand Filtration of Water, with Special Reference to Results Obtained, at Lawrence, Massachusetts. The Engineering Record.

GOLDBLITH, S. A. (1995). Of Microbes and Molecules: Food Technology, Nutrition, and Applied Biology at M.I.T., 1873-1988. Food & Nutrition Press.

HANDLEY, S. (2000). Nylon: The Story of a Fashion Revolution: A Celebration of Design from Art Silk to Nylon and Thinking Fibres. Johns Hopkins University Press.

HANSEN, J. (2018). Shaping the Modern Body: Water Infrastructure in Los Angeles (1870–1920). Body Politics, 6(9), 47–70.

HARAWAY, D. (1990). Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. Routledge.

HAUS DER KULTUREN DER WELT, & MAX PLANCK INSTITUTE FOR THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE. (2020). Anthropocene Curriculum. https://www.anthropocene-curriculum.org/

HAZEN, A. (1897). Modern Methods of Supplying Cities with Pure Water. Kalamazoo.

HAZEN, A. (1907). Clean Water and How to Get it. Wiley.

HAZEN, A. (1910). The Filtration of Public Water-Supplies. Wiley.

HEARN, M. (2014). The History of the Essex Company. Independent Publisher.

HERKERT, J. R. (2005). Ways of Thinking about and Teaching Ethical Problem Solving: Microethics and Macroethics in Engineering. Science and Engineering Ethics, 11(3), 373–385. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-005-0006-3

HOSLER, D. (1988). Ancient West Mexican Metallurgy: A Technological Chronology. Journal of Field Archaeology, 15(2), 191–217. https://doi.org/10.1179/009346988791974475

HUGHES, T. P. (1983). Networks of Power: Electrification in Western Society, 1880-1930. Johns Hopkins University Press.

ISRAEL, B. A., ENG, E., SCHULZ, A. J., & PARKER, E. A. (Eds.). (2012). Methods in Community-Based Participatory Research for Health (2nd Edition). Wiley.

JACKSON, J. B. (1984). Discovering the Vernacular Landscape. Yale University Press.

JAIN, A., ONG, S. P., HAUTIER, G., CHEN, W., RICHARDS, W. D., DACEK, S., CHOLIA, S., GUNTER, D., SKINNER, D., CEDER, G., & PERSSON, K. A. (2013). Commentary: The Materials Project: A Materials Genome Approach to Accelerating Materials Innovation. APL Materials, 1(1), 011002. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4812323

KAMMEN, M. (2007). Photography and the Discipline of American Studies. American Art, 21(3), 13–18. https://doi.org/10.1086/526476

KEATING, A. D. (1994). Invisible Networks: Exploring the History of Local Utilities and Public Works. Krieger Publishing Company.

KENDI, I. X. (2016). Stamped from the Beginning: The Definitive History of Racist Ideas in America. Nation Books.

KNOWLES, S. G., & TORERO, J. (2020). Plyscrapers, Gluescrapers, and Mother Nature’s Fingerprints. In A. E. Slaton (Ed.), New Materials: Towards a History of Consistency (pp. 151–174). Lever Press.

Lawrence City Atlases. (1875, 1888, 1906, 1926, 1938). Lawrence History Center – Immigrant City Archives and Museum, Lawrence, MA, United States.

Lawrence City Documents, Bound Annual Reports. (1846-1913). Lawrence History Center – Immigrant City Archives and Museum, Lawrence, MA, United States.

LAWRENCE HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT. (2020). Lawrence Low Impact Hydropower Recertification Application (FERC No 2800).

LECHTMAN, H. (1994). The Materials Science of Material Culture: Examples from the Andean Past. In D. A. Scott & P. Meyers (Eds.), Archaeometry of Pre-Columbian Sites and Artifacts (pp. 3–11). Getty Conservation Institute.

LERMAN, N., OLDENZIEL, R., & MOHUN, A. P. (2003). Gender and Technology: A Reader. Johns Hopkins University Press.

LI, Y., ORTIZ, C., & BOYCE, M. C. (2012). Bioinspired, Mechanical, Deterministic Fractal Model for Hierarchical Suture Joints. Physical Review E, 85(3), 031901. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.85.031901

LIN, E., LI, Y., ORTIZ, C., & BOYCE, M. C. (2014). 3D Printed, Bio-Inspired Prototypes and Analytical Models for Structured Suture Interfaces with Geometrically-tuned Deformation and Failure Behavior. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 73, 166–182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmps.2014.08.011

LINDQVIST, S. (2011). Changes in the Technological Landscape: Essays in the History of Science and Technology. Watson Publishing International LLC.

LINTSEN, H. W., HOLLESTELLE, M. J., & HÖLSGENS, H. N. M. (2017). The Plastics Revolution: How the Netherlands Became a Global Player in Plastics. Foundation for the History of Technology.

MALONE, P. M. (2009). Waterpower in Lowell: Engineering and Industry in Nineteenth-century America. Johns Hopkins University Press.

MARBLE, A. D. (1880). Annual Report of the City Engineer of the City of Lawrence. Printed at the Sentinel Office.

MARTIN-MARTINEZ, F. J., & BUEHLER, M. J. (2020). Multiscale Modeling of Structural Materials: Chemistry and Mechanical Performance. In W. Andreoni & S. Yip (Eds.), Handbook of Materials Modeling: Applications: Current and Emerging Materials (pp. 1541–1546). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-44680-6_81

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Office of the President. Reports to the President, 1871-1930 (AC-0597). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Libraries. Department of Distinctive Collections.

MASSACHUSETTS STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. (1887). Annual Report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts. State Board of Health of Massachusetts.

MASSACHUSETTS STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. (1893). A Guide to its Exhibit at the World’s Columbian Exposition. 1893. The Board.

MAYNARD, P. (1997). The Engine of Visualization: Thinking through Photography. Cornell University Press.

MCDOWELL, C. (1996). Democratic Education: Imagery, Language, and Culture. International Journal of Social Education, 11(1), 91–97.

MCDOWELL, C., & CHINCHILLA, M. Y. (2016). Partnering with Communities and Institutions. In E. Gordon & P. Mihailidis (Eds.), Civic Media: Technology, Design, Practice (pp. 461–480). https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/9970.003.0037

MELOSI, M. V. (2000). The Sanitary City: Urban Infrastructure in America from Colonial Times to the Present. University of Pittsburgh Press.

MILLS, H. (1893). Water Filtration in America. Engineering News, 97.

MILLS, H. F. (1912). Mills, Hiram Francis, 1912-1921 (AC 0013, Box 13, Folder 403). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Libraries. Department of Distinctive Collections.

MIT OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT. (1916). Reports of the President and Treasurer. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

MODY, C. C. M. (2011). Instrumental Community: Probe Microscopy and the Path to Nanotechnology. MIT Press.

MOLLOY, P. M. (1980). Nineteenth-century Hydropower: Design and Construction of Lawrence Dam, 1845-1848. Winterthur Portfolio, 15(4), 315–343. https://doi.org/10.1086/495980

NDIAYE, P. A. (2007). Nylon and Bombs: DuPont and the March of Modern America. Johns Hopkins University Press.

NYE, D. E. (1994). American Technological Sublime. MIT Press.

NYE, D. E. (Ed.). (1999). Technologies of Landscape: From Reaping to Recycling. University of Massachusetts Press.

OLDENZIEL, R., & TRISCHLER, H. (2016). Cycling and Recycling: Histories of Sustainable Practices. Berghahn.

ORTIZ, C., & BOYCE, M. C. (2008). Bioinspired Structural Materials. Science, 319(5866), 1053–1054. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1154295

OXMAN, N. (2010). Structuring Materiality: Design Fabrication of Heterogeneous Materials. Architectural Design, 80(4), 78–85. https://doi.org/10.1002/ad.1110

OXMAN, N., ORTIZ, C., GRAMAZIO, F., & KOHLER, M. (2015). Material Ecology. Computer-Aided Design, 60, 1–2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cad.2014.05.009

PERKINS, T. T., SMITH, D. E., & CHU, S. (1994). Direct Observation of Tube-like Motion of a Single Polymer Chain. Science, 264(5160), 819–822. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.8171335

Photographs of Water Filtration System Under Construction. (Ca. 1893-1910). Lawrence History Center – Immigrant City Archives and Museum, Lawrence, MA, United States.

ROWELL, W. E. (1912). Introduction. In F. B. Sanborn, R. E. Todd, F. H. McLean, & White Fund, The Report of the Lawrence Survey; Studies in Relation to Lawrence, Massachusetts, Made in 1911 (pp. 15–17). The Andover Press.

SEDGWICK, W. T. (1906). The Experimental Method in Sanitary Science and Sanitary Administration. Science, 23(584), 362–367. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.23.584.362

SEDGWICK, W. T. (1922). Principles of Sanitary Science and the Public Health with Special Reference to the Causation and Prevention of Infectious Diseases. Macmillan.

SEEWANG, L. (2019). Salubrious Berlin: Public Streets and Universal Bodies of the Modern Municipality, 1860–1909. In A. Kockelkorn & N. Zschocke (Eds.), Productive Universals-Specific Situations: Critical Engagements in Art, Architecture, and Urbanism (pp. 127–159). Sternberg.

SELIGSON, D., & MCCANTS, A. E. C. (2021). Coevolving Institutions and the Paradox of Informal Constraints. Journal of Institutional Economics, [First View], 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1744137420000600

SLATON, A. E. (2001). Reinforced Concrete and the Modernization of American Building, 1900-1930. Johns Hopkins University Press.

SLATON, A. E. (2010). Race, Rigor, and Selectivity in U.S. Engineering: The History of an Occupational Color Line. Harvard University Press.

SLATON, A. E. (2020). New Materials: Towards a History of Consistency. Lever Press. https://doi.org/10.1353/book.78801

SMITH, F. M. (1947). The Essex company on the Merrimack at Lawrence. Newcomen Society of England, American Branch.

SMITH, M. R., & MARX, L. (Eds.). (1994). Does Technology Drive History? The Dilemma of Technological Determinism. MIT Press.

SPERO, E. F. (2013). The Tua River Valley: A Technological Landscape. In A. McCants, E. Beira, J. M. Lopes Cordeiro, & P. B. Lourenço (Eds.), Railroads in Historical Context: Construction, Costs and Consequences: Vol. III (pp. 239–248). Foz Tua.

SPERO, E. F., & PEREIRA, H. S. (2016). The Tua Valley in Transition, Symbol and Technological Landscape. CEM Cultura, Espaço & Memória, 7, 223–241.

STAGE, S., & VINCENTI, V. B. (1997). Rethinking Home Economics: Women and the History of a Profession. Cornell University Press.

STEWART-SMITH, D. (1999). The Pennacook Indians and the New England Frontier, Circa 1604-1733. The Union Institute.

STROBER, M. (2011). Interdisciplinary Conversations: Challenging Habits of Thought. Stanford University Press.

THOMAS, D. S. K., PHILLIPS, B. D., LOVEKAMP, W. E., & FOTHERGILL, A. (Eds.). (2013). Social Vulnerability to Disasters. CRC Press.

THORSHEIM, P. (2016). Waste into Weapons: Recycling in Britain during the Second World War. Cambridge University Press.

TISHMAN, S. (2018). Slow Looking: The Art and Practice of Learning Through Observation. Routledge.

ULM, F.-J., VANDAMME, M., BOBKO, C., ORTEGA, J. A., TAI, K., & ORTIZ, C. (2007). Statistical Indentation Techniques for Hydrated Nanocomposites: Concrete, Bone, and Shale. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 90(9), 2677–2692. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1551-2916.2007.02012.x

UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME. (2020). Human Development Report 2020: The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene [Human Development Reports]. UNDP. http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/human-development-report-2020

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION. (2015). Rethinking Education: Towards a Global Common Good? UNESCO. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000232555

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION. (2020). Education for Sustainable Development: A Roadmap. UNESCO. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000374802?posInSet=1&queryId=73dbbf8d-800c-49e1-b293-24f28e7bcf45

VAN ANDERS, G., KLOTSA, D., KARAS, A. S., DODD, P. M., & GLOTZER, S. C. (2015). Digital Alchemy for Materials Design: Colloids and Beyond. ACS Nano, 9(10), 9542–9553. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.5b04181

VINSEL, L., & RUSSELL, A. L. (2020). The Innovation Delusion: How Our Obsession with the New Has Disrupted the Work That Matters Most. Penguin Random House.

VISELTEAR, A. J. (1988). The Emergence of Pioneering Public Health Education Programs in the United States. The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 61(6), 519–548.

WATSON, B. (2005). Bread and Roses: Mills, Migrants, and the Struggle for the American Dream. Penguin.

WEISS, S. (2020). Making Engineering Visible: Photography and the Politics of Drinking Water in Modern Paris. Technology and Culture, 61(3), 739–771. https://doi.org/10.1353/tech.2020.0072

WELLAND, M. (2010). Sand: The Never-Ending Story. University of California Press.

William T. Sedgwick Correspondence, 1893-1908 (MC 444, Box C). Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Distinctive Collections.

WINNER, L. (1986). The Whale and the Reactor: A Search for Limits in an Age of High Technology. The University of Chicago Press.

WINSLOW, C.-E. A. (1953). There Were Giants in Those Days. American Journal of Public Health and the Nations Health, 43(6 Pt 2), 15–19. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.43.6_pt_2.15

WISNIOSKI, M., HINTZ, E. S., & KLEINE, M. S. (Eds.). (2019). Does America Need More Innovators? MIT Press.

YANG, A., & DASTON, L. (2017, April 1). Time (and Time Again). Temporality, Criticality, and the Historical Imagination: A Conversation with Historian of Science Lorraine Daston [Deep Time Chicago Pamphlet Series]. Anthropocene Curriculum. https://www.anthropocene-curriculum.org/contribution/time-and-time-again

ZIMRING, C. A. (2005). Cash for Your Trash: Scrap Recycling in America. Rutgers University Press.

ZIMRING, C. A. (2017). Aluminum Upcycled: Sustainable Design in Historical Perspective. Johns Hopkins University Press.