Effect of industrial waste metal chips on flexural behavior of re-inforced concrete beams
Keywords:Waste metal chip, reinforced concrete beam, three-point bending test, ductility, flexural strength.
Recycling waste and by-products are necessary for environmentally friendly production and reducing carbon footprint. It is possible to use waste materials as additives and admixtures to improve the strength, ductility, and toughness of the reinforced concrete (RC) elements. Industrial waste metal chips have a high potential to be used as an admixture which improves the general behavior of RC elements, as proven by preliminary studies. In this study, various industrial waste metal chips were added into concrete as an admixture in different sizes and proportions to experimentally investigate the effect on the flexural strength of RC beams. Five RC beam specimens with identical dimensions and different metal chip waste admixtures were cast for the experiments. The load-displacement behavior of beams was examined by conducting a three-point bending test. As a result, it has been observed that the use of waste metal chips can significantly increase the flexural strength and ductility of the beams. The maximum load of one specimen with steel chip admixture is found to be 1.75 times higher than the waste-free reference beam. It is concluded that the usage of waste metal chips as an admixture is a viable solution to enhance the flexural behavior of the RC beams.
Abbass, Wasim, M. Iqbal Khan, and Shehab Mourad. 2018. “Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete with Different Strengths of Concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 168:556–69.
Akhtar, Nadeem, and Seema Patel. 2019. “Agro-Industrial Discards and Invasive Weed-Based Lignocelluloses as Green Building Materials: A Pertinent Review.” Pp. 121–30 in. Springer, Singapore.
Alor, Johnny, Juan Alfaro, José Rodríguez, and Carlos Eyzaguirre. 2019. “Use of Metal-Mechanics Waste as an Addition in the Production of an Ecological Concrete” edited by C. Chastre and P. Mendonça. MATEC Web of Conferences 303(2019).
Alwaeli, Mohamed. 2016. “The Implementation of Scale and Steel Chips Waste as a Replacement for Raw Sand in Concrete Manufacturing.” Journal of Cleaner Production 137:1038–44.
Alwaeli, Mohamed, and Jan Nadziakiewicz. 2012. “Recycling of Scale and Steel Chips Waste as a Partial Replacement of Sand in Concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 28(1):157–63.
Aslan, Çağatay. 2020. “The Effect of Industrial Iron Chip Wastes on the Bending Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beams.” Eskişehir Osmangazi University.
ASTM. 2020a. “ASTM C136-M19 Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates.” ASTM International 5.
ASTM. 2020b. “ASTM E11-20 Standard Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves.” ASTM International 12.
Batayneh, Malek, Iqbal Marie, and Ibrahim Asi. 2007. “Use of Selected Waste Materials in Concrete Mixes.” Waste Management 27(12):1870–76.
EUPG. 2020. European Aggregates Association Annual Review 2019 - 2020.
Euroslag, and Eurofer. 2012. Position Paper on the Status of Ferrous Slag Complying With the Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/CE (Article 5/6) and the REACH Regulation. Vol. 32. Duisberg, Germany.
Fortunati, G. U., G. Belli, and J. Schmitt-Tegge. 1994. “The European Waste Catalogue.” Pp. 191–215 in Technologies for Environmental Cleanup: Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
Gülmez, Nihan. 2021. “Reuse of Industrial Metal Wastes as Partial Replacement of Aggregates in Mortar Production.” DÜMF Mühendislik Dergisi 12:875–80.
Horii, Kazuhiro, Naoto Tsutsumi, Toshiaki Kato, Yoshiyuki Kitano, and Keisuke Sugahara. 2015. “Overview of Iron/Steel Slag Application and Development of New Utilization Technologies.” Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Technical Report 109(109):5–11.
Ismail, Zainab Z., and Enas A. AL-Hashmi. 2008. “Reuse of Waste Iron as a Partial Replacement of Sand in Concrete.” Waste Management 28(11):2048–53.
Jagan, S., T. R. Neelakantan, and R. Gokul Kannan. 2021. “Mechanical and Durability Properties of the Concrete with Copper Slag.” Revista de La Construcción 20(2):359–70.
Saha, Ashish, and Prabir Sarker. 2018. “Mechanical Properties of Concrete Using Ferronickel Slag as Fine Aggregate and Supplementary Cementitious Material.” Concrete in Australia 44(4):40–44.
Silva, R. V, J. De Brito, and R. K. Dhir. 2014. “Properties and Composition of Recycled Aggregates from Construction and Demolition Waste Suitable for Concrete Production.”
Tian, Zhong-xi, Zeng-hui Zhao, Chun-quan Dai, and Shu-jie Liu. 2016. “Experimental Study on the Properties of Concrete Mixed with Iron Ore Tailings.” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering 2016:1–9.
Topkaya, Y., N. Sevinç, and A. Günaydın. 2004. “Slag Treatment at Kardemir Integrated Iron and Steel Works.” International Journal of Mineral Processing 74(1–4):31–39.
TSI. 2019. “TS 706 EN 1260+A1 Aggregates for Concrete.” Turkish Standards Institution (2):44.
TSI. 2021. “TS EN 206+A2 Concrete - Specification, Performance, Production and Conformity.” Turkish Standards Institution 102.
Wang, Wei, Wuyou Wei, Shan Gao, Guiming Chen, Jian Yuan, and Yu Li. 2021. “Agricultural and Aquaculture Wastes as Concrete Components: A Review.” Frontiers in Materials 8(November):1–20.
WCO. 2022. Harmonized System Nomenclature 2022. World Customs Organization.
Whittaker, Mark James, Konstantinos Grigoriadis, Marios Soutsos, Wei Sha, Andrea Klinge, Sara Paganoni, Maria Casado, Linus Brander, Marjan Mousavi, Michael Scullin, Ruben Correia, Tommaso Zerbi, Giovanni Staiano, Irene Merli, Ilaria Ingrosso, Agnese Attanasio, and Alessandro Largo. 2021. “Novel Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) Treatment and Uses to Maximize Reuse and Recycling.” Advances in Building Energy Research 15(2):253–69.
Wong, Chee Lum, Kim Hung Mo, Soon Poh Yap, U. Johnson Alengaram, and Tung-Chai Ling. 2018. “Potential Use of Brick Waste as Alternate Concrete-Making Materials: A Review.” Journal of Cleaner Production 195:226–39.
Worldsteel. 2021. Fact Sheet: Steel Industry Co-Products. Brussels, Belgium.
Wu, Huixia, Jianzhuang Xiao, Chaofeng Liang, Zhiming Ma, H ; Wu, J ; Xiao, C ; Liang, and Z Ma. 2021. “Properties of Cementitious Materials with Recycled Aggregate and Powder Both from Clay Brick Waste.”
Wu, Zemei, Caijun Shi, and Kamal Henri Khayat. 2019. “Investigation of Mechanical Properties and Shrinkage of Ultra-High Performance Concrete: Influence of Steel Fiber Content and Shape.” Composites Part B: Engineering 174(May):107021.
Xiao, Jianzhuang, Zhiming Ma, Tongbo Sui, Ali Akbarnezhad, and Zhenhua Duan. 2018. “Mechanical Properties of Concrete Mixed with Recycled Powder Produced from Construction and Demolition Waste.” Journal of Cleaner Production 188:720–31.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Çağatay Aslan, Ömer Karagöz, Hande Gökdemir, Ayten Günaydın
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.