Seismic analysis of RC building frames with vertical mass and stiffness irregularities using adaptive pushover analysis


  • Brahim Benaied University Abdelhamid Ibn Badis of Mostaganem, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture Mostaganem, Algeria,
  • Miloud Hemsas LSTE Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, University Mustapha Stambouli of Mascara, Mascara (Algeria)
  • Abdelkader Benanane LMPC Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University Abdelhamid Ibn Badis, Mostaganem (Algeria)
  • Mohammed Hentri 4 LSTE Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, University Mustapha Stambouli of Mascara, Mascara (Algeria)



Seismic, adaptive pushover analysis, irregular structure, mass irregularity, stiffness irregularity.


Irregular multistory buildings constitute a large part of modern urban infrastructure due to architectural aesthetics and functional requirements. In contrast, their behavior during recent major earthquakes indicated that severe structural damage was observed due to non-uniform distributions of mass, stiffness and strength either in plan or in elevation. Notably, abrupt changes in these quantities between adjacent stories are always associated with changes in the structural system along the height of the building. The present study investigates the inelastic response of RC buildings with mass and stiffness irregularities subjected to earthquake action. Thus, the displacement-based adaptive pushover method is used. This latter is motivated by the application of a lateral displacement pattern obtained by combining different mode shapes and updated incrementally at each analysis step. For this purpose, a ten-story regular frame structure is chosen and modified by incorporating vertical irregularities in various forms in order to estimate and quantify essential parameters' responses. The results obtained are discussed under the following headings: base shear forces, roof displacement, inter-story drift and story-shear distribution. With respect to the vertical mass and stiffness irregularities, it was noticed that the seismic response is more significantly influenced by stiffness irregularities compared to mass irregularities, which were found to have a slight impact on the seismic behavior of the building. It is also established that the simple procedure allows the evaluation of design forces and displacements in a more rational manner, in accordance with the current state of knowledge and modern trends in building codes. The results conclude, however, that the irregular structure cannot meet the seismic design requirements and must be constructed to minimize seismic effects.  


Download data is not yet available.


Aboelhassan, M. G., Shoukry, M. E. & Allam, S. M. (2022). Effect of the connecting beam stiffness on the bracing limit for reinforced concrete slender columns in single and multi-story frames, Rev. IBRACON Estrut. Mater., Volume 15 Issue 2, e15209, DOI: 10.1590/s1983-41952022000200009.

Aboelhassan, M. G., (2021). Nonlinear Simulation of Reinforced Concrete Moment Resisting Frames under Earthquakes, International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), Volume 10 Issue 3, 736 – 743, DOI: 10.21275/sr21311214003.

Aksoylu C., Mobark, A., Arslan M.H., & Erkan, İ.-H. (2020). A comparative study on ASCE 7-16, TBEC-2018 and TEC-2007 for reinforced concrete buildings. Journal of Revista de la Construcción 19 (2) Santiago set. 2020. DOI:

Al-Ali AK, & Krawinkler H (1998). Effects of Vertical Irregularities on Seismic Behavior of Building Structures, Report 130, Standford University. Das S, Nau J.M. (2003). Seismic design aspects of vertically irregular reinforced concrete buildings. Earthquake Spectra 19(3): 455–477. DOI:

Antoniou S., & Pinho R. (2004). Advantages and limitations of adaptive and non-adaptive force-based pushover procedures. J. Earthq. Eng., 8(4), 497-522. DOI:

Bhatt C, Bento R (2014). The Extended Adaptive Capacity Spectrum Method for the Seismic Assessment of Plan-Asymmetric Buildings. Earthquake Spectra, 30 (2), 683-703. DOI:

Caruso, C., Bento, R., & Castro, J.M. (2018). Relevance of torsional effects on the seismic assessment of an old RC frame-wall building in Lisbon. Journal of Building Engineering, 19(09), 459-47141. DOI:

Chang-Soo K., Hong-Gun P. & Gia-Toai T. (2021). Column-to-beam flexural strength ratio for performance-based design of RC moment frames. Journal of Building Engineering. DOI:

Chopra, A. K., & Goel, R. K. (2002). A modal pushover analysis procedure for estimating seismic demands for buildings. Earthq. Engrg. Struc. Dyn., 31(3):561-582. DOI:

Çoşgun, T., Sayin, B. & Gunes B. (2022). A methodological approach for seismic performance of existing single-storey industrial RC precast facilities. Revista de la Construcción. Journal of Construction, 21(1), 167-183. DOI:

Das S., & Nau J.M. (2003). Seismic design aspects of vertically irregular reinforced concrete buildings. Earthquake Spectra 19(3): 455–477. DOI:

Dutta, S.C. & Das, P.K. (2002). "Inelastic seismic response of code-designed reinforced concrete asymmetric buildings with strength degradation", Engi-neering Structures, 24(10), 1295 -1314. DOI:

Eurocode 8. (2014). Design of structures for earthquake resistance - Part 1 : General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels. DOI:

Fajfar, P. (2000). A Nonlinear Analysis Method for Performance Based Seismic Design. Earthquake Spectra, 16(3):573-592. DOI:

Fajfar P., Marušić D. & Peruš I. (2005). Torsional effects in the pushover-based seismic analysis of buildings, Journal of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 09, No. 06, pp. 831-854, DOI:

FEMA 440. (2005). Improvement of nonlinear static seismic analysis procedures. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Redwood City, California.

FEMA P-2012/September (2018). Assessing Seismic Performance of Buildings with Configuration Irregularities: Calibrating Current Standards and Prac-tices ATC 201, Redwood Shores Parkway, Suite 240, Redwood City, California 94065.

Fragiadakis, M., Vamvatsikos, D. & Papadrakakis, M. (2006). Evaluation of the influence of vertical irregularities on the seismic performance of a nine-story steel frame. Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn., 35(12), 1489–1509. DOI:

Gallegos, M. F., Araya-Letelier, G., Lopez-Garcia, D., & Parra, P. F. (2023). Collapse Assessment of Mid-Rise RC Dual Wall-Frame Buildings Subjected to Subduction Earthquakes. Buildings, 13(4), 880.

Gunes, B., Cosgun, T., Sayin, B., & Mangir, A. (2019). Seismic performance of an existing low-rise RC building considering the addition of a new storey. Revista de la Construcción, 18(3), 459-475.

Hemsas M., Elachachi S.M & Breysse D. (2014). Seismic response and damage development analyses of an RC structural wall building using macro-element. Structural Engineering and Mechanics, 51(3), 447-470. DOI:

Hentri M., Hemsas M. & Nedjar D. (2018). Vulnerability of asymmetric multi-storey buildings in the context of performance-based seismic design", Euro-pean Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, 25(5), 813-834, DOI:

Mazzoni S, McKenna F, Scott MH & Fenves GL (2009), Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation user Manual, Berkeley: University of California, USA.

McKenna F., Scott MH. & Fenves GL (2010). Nonlinear finite-element analysis software architecture using object composition. ASCE. Journal of Compu-ting in Civil Engineering, 24(1), 95–107.

McKenna F, & Fenves GL. (2001) The OpenSees Command Language Manual—Version 1.2. Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Centre, University of California, Berkeley, 2001. DOI:

Michalis F, Dimitrios V, & Manolis P (2006). Evaluation of the influence of vertical irregularities on the seismic performance of nine-storey steel frame. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 35, 1489-1509. DOI:

Naresh Kumar, B.G., Punith, N., Bhyrav, R.B., & Arpitha, T.P. (2017). Assessment of location of centre of mass and centre of rigidity for different setback buildings. Int. J. Eng. Res. Technol. (IJERT), (6), 801–804.

OpenSees. (2011), "The Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation", PEER, University of California, Berkeley URL: http://opensees.

Özbayrak, A. & Altun, F. (2021). Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Beam Slab Openings in RC Structures on Seismic Behavior. Revista de la Cons-trucción. Journal of Construction, 20(3), 512-530. DOI:

RPA99, (2003). Règles Parasismiques Algériennes. Centre National de Recherche Appliquée en Génie Parasismique, Alger.

Scott, B. D., Park, R., & Priestley, M. J. N. (1982). Stress–strain behavior of concrete confined by overlapping hoops at low and high strain rates. ACI Journal, 79(1), 13–27.

Tarabia A. M., & Aboelhassan M. G., (2022). Nonlinear Finite-Element Modeling of Precast Reinforced Concrete Moment-Resisting Frames, the Interna-tional Review of Civil Engineering (IRECE), Volume 13 Issue 6, 444-454, DOI: 10.15866/irece.v13i6.21564.




How to Cite

Benaied, B., Hemsas, M. ., Benanane, A. ., & Hentri, M. . (2023). Seismic analysis of RC building frames with vertical mass and stiffness irregularities using adaptive pushover analysis. Revista De La Construcción. Journal of Construction, 22(3), 597–612.